Anton Gass, "Early Iron Age Burials in Southeastern Zhetysu: The Geoarchaeological Evidence", in: Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia, 39,3 (Sep 2011), 57–69


Preliminary results of the geoarchaeological studies at the Early Iron Age (Saka) elite burial grounds in southeastern Zhetysu, Kazakhstan, are outlined. The reconstructed climates and landscapes of the region are relevant for the economy practiced by the early nomads. Kurgans, mounds on the periphery of the burial grounds, and ritual roads – the earliest ones in Western Central Asia – are described in detail. Saka burial grounds, which are situated in the northern foothills of the Trans-Ili Alatau, appear to have marked the boundary of the sacral tribal territory of the Saka.


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